National and regional studies on financial exclusion and poverty show that several factors have to be taken into account when considering financially excluded people, primarily one’s age, income, employment status, household income, geographic location and a series of attitudes.
Generally speaking, people with low income, less education, part of an ethnic minority or with migrant background and either very old or very young are more likely to be financially excluded than others. Women are also twice as likely to find themselves completely excluded from financial services than men. By household type, people who are completely financially excluded are more likely to be found within households with no wage earner.
In 2003, financial exclusion disproportionately affects the following groups:
As regards the working status of financially excluded people, students and unemployed are over-represented in Western Europe while people whose occupation it is to look after their home as well as once again unemployed people are most likely to be affected in Eastern Europe:
No access to credit
||No transaction bank account
|EU 10||EU 15||EU 10||EU 15||EU 10|
|-Looking after home||13||52||51||82||38||66||28||69|
|-2nd lowest quartile||5||37||41||80||30||56||15||61|
|-2nd highest quartile||4||20||35||66||24||45||11||41|
Source : Financial Services provision and prevention of financial exclusion, Réseau Financement Alternatif Report